January 4, 2023
The S&P 500 Index ended 2022 at 3,839.50, down -19.4% from a year before, after peaking almost exactly at end of 2021.
The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) ended 2022 at 33,147.25, down -8.8% from a year before, after peaking on January 4.
The Nasdaq Composite Index ended 2022 at 10,466.48, down -33.1% from a year before, after peaking in November 2021.
As of January 13, the MSCI Global Index stands at 2,720.09, up +1.4% from a month ago, but down -15.4% from a year ago.
As of January 13, the CBOE Volatility Index (VIX), which measures expected stock market volatility based on S&P 500 index options, stood at 18.83, down -7.3% from a year ago.
S&P 500 Price/Earnings Ratio (12-Month Trailing)
According to Prof. Aswath Damodaran of NYU’s calculations, the implied Equity Risk Premium (ERP), based on cash yield, for the S&P 500 was 5.9% at the start of January 2023, up from 5.3% the previous month. The historical average since 1960 is 4.2%, and since 2002 is 5.0%. You can find his calculations here: